Monday, 18 December 2017

Carlo Crivelli - part 1

Carlo Crivelli was probably born in Venice during the early 1430s. Both his father, Jacopo, and his brother, Vittore, were painters. Carlo is mentioned only once in Venetian documents: in 1457, already a master painter, he was fined and sentenced to six months in prison for abducting a sailor's wife.
Though trained in the late Gothic style of Antonio Vivarini, as his earliest works show, and familiar with the drawings of Jacopo Bellini, from which some of his mature compositions derive, Crivelli was profoundly influenced by early Renaissance art in Padua. There he studied works by Donatello, Fra Filippo Lippi, and the young Andrea Mantegna. He also probably joined the workshop of Francesco Squarcione sometime during the apprenticeship of the Dalmatian painter Giorgio Ciulinovich, called Schiavone, who arrived in 1456 and returned to Zara about 1461. So similar are the two young painters that Crivelli is presumed to have worked with Schiavone in Padua and followed him to Zara, where Crivelli was a resident and citizen by 1465.
By 1468, when he signed and dated an altarpiece in Massa Fermana, Crivelli had moved to the Marches, where an economic resurgence attracted trans-Adriatic immigration. After first living in Fermo, he became a resident of Ascoli Piceno by 1478. Crivelli flourished in this provincial area, where his allegiance to the elaborate compartmentalized polyptych and his superb skill with tempera and gold leaf appealed to the conservative taste of his patrons, and where he was free to develop his unique interpretation of Gothic and Renaissance themes without having to compete with the new Venetian style of Giovanni Bellini. Crivelli may have visited Ferrara about 1470, but from the mid-1470s, when his style had matured, through the 1480s, he resisted outside influences. In his late works, however, he drew inspiration from the altarpiece that Giovanni Bellini painted for Pesaro in the 1470s, and adopted the unified space of the new Renaissance type of altarpiece. The expressive figure style and brilliant, rich colors that distinguish Crivelli's art are remarkably consistent. His success spawned local imitators, including his brother Vittore, who was active in Fermo from 1481. Carlo was ultimately rewarded with a knighthood by Prince Ferdinand of Capua in 1490. He died in Ascoli in 1495.
Biography from The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

This is part 1 of a 3-part post on the works of Carlo Crivelli:

1460c Madonna and Child
tempera and gold on wood 32 x 22.2 cm
Vittorio Cini Collection, Venice, Italy

1465-95c The Saviour Blessing
oil on panel
El Paso Museum of Art, Texas

1468c Madonna and Child
 tempera on panel 62.2 x 41 cm
San Diego Museum of Art, CA

1460c Madonna and Child
tempera and gold on wood 32 x 22.2 cm
Vittorio Cini Collection, Venice, Italy
1468 The Altarpiece of Massa Fermana:
 1468 The Altarpiece of Massa Fermana

1468 Saint John the Baptist
tempera on wood panel 105 x 34 cm

1468 Saint Lorenzo
tempera on wood panel 105 x 34 cm

1468 Saint Silvester
 tempera on wood panel 105 x 34 cm

Saint Francis
tempera on wood panel 105 x 34 cm
1470 Porto San Giorgio altarpiece:
Monumental altarpieces with multiple images (polytychs) were a staple of Cruvelli's painting practice. The Porto San Giorgio altarpiece stood over the high altar of the parish church in the Adriatic coastal town of Porto San Giorgio for over four hundred years.
Following demolition of the church in 1803, the altarpiece was sawn apart and its paintings dispersed to collections in Europe and the United States. Isabella Stewart Gardner purchased "Saint George in 1897, bringing the first Crivelli to America. The six surviving panels are assembled in the reconstruction below.

1470 Porto San Giorgio altarpiece

1470 Porto San Giorgio altarpiece
Lamentation

1470 Porto San Giorgio altarpiece
Saints Catherine and Jerome

1470s c Saints Peter and Paul 
tempera on poplar 93.3 x 47 cm 
The National Gallery, London

1470 Porto San Giorgio altarpiece
Saints Anthony Abbot and Lucy

1470 Saint George Slaying the Dragon
tempera and gold on wood 94 x 47.8 cm
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, MA

1470 Saint George Slaying the Dragon ( detail ) 

1470 Porto San Giorgio altarpiece
Madonna and Child Enthroned with Donor
tempera on poplar panel 125.3 x 50.7 cm
National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
*          *          *          *          *

1470-73 Enthroned Madonna ( Enthroned Maria Lactans )
tempera on wood panel 127 x 84 cm

1470-75c The Dead Christ supported by Two Angels
tempera on poplar wood 72.4 x 55.2 cm
The National Gallery, London

1470c ( attributed to ) St Peter
 brown ink, brown wash and white gouache on cream antique laid paper, cut along outlines of figure inlaid into cream antique laid paper, lined with cream wove paper 20.5 x 15.5 cm
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA

1470c Madonna with Child
tempera on wood transferred to canvas 61.9 x 41 cm
Pinacoteca de Macerata, Venice

1470c Saint John the Evangelist
tempera on wood panel 32.1 x 23.5 cm
Detroit Institute of Arts, MI

1470c Saint Peter the Apostle
tempera on wood panel 31.8 x 23.2 cm
Detroit Institute of Arts, MI

1470c The Deposition of Christ
tempera and gold on wood panel 41.9 x 114.3 cm
Detroit Institute of Arts, MI


late 1470s late ( Pietà ) Dead Christ Supported by Two Angels
tempera and tooled gold on panel 71.1 x 47.3 cm
Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

1471-72 Madonna and Child
panel 183 x 59.5 cm
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

1471-72 St Francis of Assisi
panel 183 x 59.5 cm
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels

1471-73c An Apostle
 tempera and gold on wood 32.1 x 23.2 cm
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York


1471-73c Two Evangelists:


1471-73c Two Evangelists ( Saint John the Evangelist and the Author of Another Gospel ) from a predella
tempera with oil and gilding on poplar panels 31.5 x 47 cm
National Trust, Upton House, UK

1471-73c Two Evangelists ( Saint John the Evangelist and the Author of Another Gospel ) from a predella 
tempera with oil and gilding on poplar panels 31.5 x 47 cm 
National Trust, Upton House, UK

1472 Madonna and Child Enthroned
tempera on wood, gold ground 98.4 x 43.8 cm
 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1472 Saint Bartholomew
Pinacoteca del Castello sforzesco, Milano

1472 Saint Giovanni Evangelist
Pinacoteca del Castello sforzesco, Milano

1472 Saint Dominic
tempera on wood, gold ground 97.2 x 32.4 cm
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1472 Saint George
tempera on wood with gold ground 38 x 13.2 cm
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

1472 Saint James Major, part of an altarpiece
tempera and tooled gold on panel
Brooklyn Museum, New York

1472 Saint Nicholas of Bari
oil on wood panel 96.2 x 32 cm
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Ohio

1472c Madonna and Child
tempera on wood 71 x 50 cm
1473 Saint Paul
tempera on wood panel 136 x 39 cm

1475 Two Apostles:





1475-80c Saint Anthony of Padua
oil on panel 151.8 x 49.8 cm
 Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk, VA


Friday, 15 December 2017

Amedeo Modigliani - part 9

Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, and André Salmon

Amedeo Modigliani was born July 12, 1884, in Livorno, Italy. The serious illnesses he suffered during his childhood persisted throughout his life. At age 14, he began to study painting. The only solo show given the artist during his lifetime took place at the Galerie Berthe Weill in December 1917. Modigliani died January 24, 1920, in Paris.

For more biographical notes on Modigliani see part 1, and for earlier works, see parts 1 - 8 also.

This is part 9, the final part of a 9-part series on the works of Amedeo Modigliani:



1919 Woman with a Fan
oil on canvas 100 x 65 cm
Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

1919 Woman with Blue Eyes
oil on canvas 81 x 54 cm
Musée d'art Moderne de la Ville de Paris

1919 Young Man
oil on canvas 60.9 x 46 cm
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

1919 Young Man with Cap
oil on canvas 61 x 37.8 cm
Detroit Institute of the Arts, MI

1919 Young Red Haired Man Sitting
oil on canvas 100.5 x 65 cm
 Private Collection

1919-20 Mario Varvogli
oil on canvas
Private Collection

1919c Jeanne Hébuterne in a Hat
 oil on canvas 92 x 54 cm
Private Collection

1919c Jeanne Hébuterne
oil on canvas
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

1919c Landscape
oil on canvas
Private Collection

1919c Madame Zborowska
graphite on paper 26 x 20.8 cm
The Jewish Museum, New York

1919c Mr. Heyden of Dublin
graphite on white wove paper laid down on Japan paper 42 x 20 cm
 Minneapolis Institute of Art, Minnesota

1919c Paulette Jourdain
oil on canvas 100.3 x 65.4 cm
Private Collection

1919c Portrait of a Woman
pencil 42.5 x 25.4 cm
 Los Angeles County Museum of Art, CA

1919c Reclining Nude
 oil on canvas 72.4 x 116.5 cm
Museum of Modern Art, New York

1919c Self-Portrait
oil on canvas 64 x 100 cm
 Museu de Arte Moderna de São Paulo, Brazil

1920 Mario the Musician
pencil on paper 48.9 x 30.5 cm
Museum of Modern Art, New York

Note: The remainder of the works in this post are either not dated, or I couldn't fine one:


n.d. ( attributed to ) Study of Seated Nude
pencil on cream paper 47.5 x 32.3 cm
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, MA

n.d. Adolphe Basler
graphite on card 19.2 x 11.7 cm
The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC

n.d. Beatrice Hastings Leaning on Her Elbow

n.d. Beatrice Hastings

n.d. Caryatid
brush and ink and watercolour on newsprint, laid down 21.4 x 16.4 cm
The Phillips Collection, Washington, DC

n.d. Caryatid
graphite on three sheets of tan wove paper, darkened 68.8 x 26.1 cm
Harvard Art Museums, Cambridge, MA
 © President and Fellows of Harvard College

n.d. Caryatid
Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

n.d. Caryatid
Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

n.d. Caryatid
Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

n.d. Caryatid
watercolour over graphite on buff wove paper laid down on paper, laid down on card 53.7 x 41 cm
Art Institute of Chicago, IL.

n.d. Coffee
oil on canvas

n.d. Cristiane
Macini Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art, London

n.d. Head
limestone 89.2 x 14 x 35.2 cm
Tate, London

n.d. Head ( side view of the above )
limestone 89.2 x 14 x 35.2 cm 
Tate, London

n.d. Head of a Woman
Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art, London

n.d. Head of a Woman
Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA

n.d. Jeanne Hébuterne
oil on canvas 81.3 x 54.6 cm
Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK

n.d. Jeanne Hébuterne
pencil on off-white paper 41.5 x 25.1 cm
Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana

n.d. Madame Eyrand-Vaillant
Estorick Collection of Modern Italian Art, London

n.d. Othon Friesz
pencil on paper 42.5 x 26 cm
Indianapolis Museum of Art, Indiana

n.d. Portrait of a Woman
oil on canvas 70.8 x 49.2 cm
Private Collection

n.d. Portrait of a Young Woman
brush and black ink and black watercolour on tan wove paper laid down on card 43.7 x 25.8 cm
Art Institute of Chicago, IL

n.d. Two Girls
oil on canvas 100.2 x 65.1 cm
Private Collection

n.d. Woman's Head
 oil on canvas 41 x 27 cm
Private Collection

n.d. Woman's Head
oil on canvas 61 x 46 cm
Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Argentina

n.d. Woman's Head
 pen and ink
Dallas Museum of Art, Texas

n.d. Woman's Head with Red Hair
oil on cradled panel 35 x 27 cm
Private Collection